On Elections

How people elect parliaments

Elections and results

[Note: several of the pages in this part of the site are still under development. No data has been published yet.]


This section of the site sets out – for each of the 13 selected nations – the methods by which elections occur, analysis of election results, and (eventually) detailed election result data.

Reviews of specific elections are here.

Each country page below provides explanatory material on the relevant electoral system and a discussion of key features and outcomes:

This survey primarily covers the major nations using single-member division systems, which are rich in detailed data. The United States‘ plurality SMD system is almost entirely based on two dominant parties, but also illustrates a number of complex variations and defects. The UK and Canadian plurality SMD systems are coping with three major parties as well as powerful regional parties. India and Pakistan illustrate complex regional coalitions of large numbers of parties. Malaysia illustrates the effect of malapportionment by regions.

France is the primary example of the two-round runoff system – in effect two sets of data for each election. Australia is the primary example of the preferential SMD system, and Éire and Malta illustrate the highly representative results achievable with the STV system.

The Singaporean system illustrates the result of using the party block vote system, exacerbated in this case by a single dominant major party.

Germany illustrates the interaction of the two components of an assembly using the mixed-member proportional system.

Turkey – a distorted closed-list seat allocation system – is included to illustrate the effect of the high threshold.

This selection overlooks the many nations that use simple seat allocation (party list) systems, where election results are simply mathematics applied at divisional or national levels to simple arrays of party vote results.

Data coverage map

For entries in the catalogue of electoral systems go to:
AustraliaCanadaEireFranceGermanyIndiaMalaysiaMaltaPakistanSingaporeTurkeyUnited KingdomUnited States




It is also intended that elections data in a consistent tabulated format will be published through these pages, but as at April 2016 the data is yet to be posted. (The extensive work of tidying these data tables for publication is ongoing, and I intend to add them progressively as they are ready.)

The datasets intended for posting here will include tabulated seat-by-seat election results.


Upcoming elections

Upcoming elections for 2016 include Australia (2 July 2016) and the United States (8 November 2016).


6 April 2016


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