On Elections

How people elect parliaments


State Duma



Russia’s national parliamentary institutions were re-established following a constitutional reformation in 1993. From that time the Russian system of government has included a bicameral Federalnoye Sobraniye (Federal Assembly) of which the lower house is the Gosudarstvennaya Duma (State Duma), a composite assembly of 450 members.

As of the elections of 2016 half of the Duma, 225 members, are directly elected in single member divisions by the plurality voting method. The remaining 225 members are not directly elected, but seats are allocated on a national basis by the closed party list system of seat allocation, using the simple quota and the largest remainder method, to all parties which win at least 5% of the vote nationwide. Once each party’s seat allotment is determined the party then appoints individual deputies to fill its seats.

At the elections from 1993 to 2003 the Duma was also a composite assembly, with half the seats directly elected in single-member divisions and half filled by seat allocation. However at the elections of 2007 and 2011 the entire 450 seats in the Duma were filled by party-proportional seat allocation.

Terms are five years.

Russia has the premier-presidential system of government, in which executive power is exercised jointly by the Prezident (President) and also the Premʹer-ministr (Prime Minister). The President is directly elected for a six-year term by the two-round runoff system. Presidents are limited to 2 consecutive terms of office (Boris Yeltsin was elected in 1991 and 1996, followed by Vladimir Putin in 2000 and 2004, then Dmitry Medvedev in 2008. With effect from 2012 the presidential term length was extended from four to six years, and Vladimir Putin was elected for a third presidential term in 2012). The Prime Minister is appointed by the President but must retain the continuing confidence of a majority in the Duma.




[Inequality in the effective influence of voters caused by variations in xxx division enrolments]

[nomination openness – party configurations]

[summary of results]

[Inequality in the effective influence of voters caused by variations in division turnouts (formal votes)]

[inequality by margins]

Specific elections

1993 – 1995 – 1999 – 2003 – 2007 – 2011 – 2016




[data source – data completeness – anomalous contests]


[Datasets are not yet published]

  • Russia election results – 1993-2016
%d bloggers like this: